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The 9 item General Procrastinaton Scale – GPS-9

Trait procrastination is increasingly recognised as having relevance for a number of consequential outcomes, including health. However, research with clinical populations may be hindered by longer scales. The GPS-9 was developed as a short, reliable version of Lay’s (1986) full 20-item scale to address this need and proivde researchers with a brief measure of trait procrastination to reduce particpant burden.

The 9 items were chosen based on the highest loading items from a factor analysis of a large sample of adults from the community (n = 620) and then replicated with another large sample of adults (n = 980). Validity tests revelaled that the GPS-9 was associated with known qualities and traits from the nomological network of the full GPS scale, and trait procrastination more generally.

The reliability generalisation of the GPS-9 was tested by meta-analysing th Cronbach’s alphas of the GPS-9 across 15 independent samples of students and adults. Across all 15 samples the new GPS-9 demonstrated very good internal consistency, with coefficient alphas ranging from .88 to .91, and an average coefficient alpha of .894.

Overall, the analyses provide evidence that the GPS-9 is a brief, valid, and reliable measure of trait procrastination. The GPS-9 can be used for research and teaching purposes without cost. It is currently avalailble in English and Chinese.

The paper detailing the development and validation of the GPS-9 can be found here.

Please use the following reference when using the GPS-9:

Sirois, F. M., Yang, S., & van Eerde,W. (2019). Development and validation of the GPS-9, a short and reliable measure of trait procrastination. Personality & Individual Differences.146, 26-33. link

To download the GPS-9 and a preprint of the development paper, please click here.